在本文中,我们将学习如何使用RedHat开发的YUM(Yellowdog Updater Modified)工具在Linux系统上安装,更新,删除,查找软件包,管理软件包和存储库。本文中显示的示例命令在CentOS 6.3服务器上进行了实际测试,您可以将这些材料用于研究目的,认证或仅探索安装新软件包的方法并使您的系统保持最新状态。本文的基本要求是,您必须对命令和Linux操作系统有基本的了解,您可以在其中探索和练习下面列出的所有命令。

什么是YUM?

YUM(Yellowdog Updater Modified)是一个开源命令行,也是基于RPM(RedHat Package Manager)的Linux系统的基于图形的包管理工具。它允许用户和系统管理员轻松安装,更新,删除或搜索系统上的软件包。它由Seth Vidal根据GPL(通用公共许可证)开发和发布,作为开源,意味着任何人都可以下载和访问代码来修复错误并开发定制包。YUM使用大量第三方存储库通过解决其依赖性问题自动安装包。

1.使用YUM安装包

要安装名为Firefox 14的软件包,只需运行以下命令,它将自动查找并安装Firefox所需的所有依赖项。

# yum install firefox
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Dependencies Resolved

================================================================================================
 Package                    Arch        Version                    Repository            Size        
================================================================================================
Updating:
firefox                        i686        10.0.6-1.el6.centos     updates             20 M
Updating for dependencies:
 xulrunner                     i686        10.0.6-1.el6.centos     updates             12 M

Transaction Summary
================================================================================================
Install       0 Package(s)
Upgrade       2 Package(s)

Total download size: 32 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): firefox-10.0.6-1.el6.centos.i686.rpm                                |  20 MB   01:10
(2/2): xulrunner-10.0.6-1.el6.centos.i686.rpm                              |  12 MB   00:52
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                           63 kB/s |  32 MB   02:04

Updated:
  firefox.i686 0:10.0.6-1.el6.centos

Dependency Updated:
  xulrunner.i686 0:10.0.6-1.el6.centos

Complete!

在您的系统上安装任何软件包之前,上述命令将询问确认。如果要自动安装软件包而不要求任何确认,请使用选项-y,如下例所示。

# yum -y install firefox

2.使用YUM删除包

要使用所有依赖项完全删除包,只需运行以下命令,如下所示。

# yum remove firefox
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Setting up Remove Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package firefox.i686 0:10.0.6-1.el6.centos set to be erased
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

====================================================================================================
 Package                    Arch        Version                        Repository            Size        
====================================================================================================
Removing:
 firefox                    i686        10.0.6-1.el6.centos            @updates              23 M

Transaction Summary
====================================================================================================
Remove        1 Package(s)
Reinstall     0 Package(s)
Downgrade     0 Package(s)

Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Erasing        : firefox-10.0.6-1.el6.centos.i686                                                                                                                          1/1

Removed:
  firefox.i686 0:10.0.6-1.el6.centos

Complete!

同样,上面的命令会在删除包之前询问确认。要禁用确认提示,只需添加选项-y,如下所示。

# yum -y remove firefox

3.使用YUM更新包

假设您已经过时的MySQL软件包版本,并且您希望将其更新为最新的稳定版本。只需运行以下命令,它将自动解决所有依赖项问题并安装它们。

# yum update mysql
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Dependencies Resolved

============================================================================================================
 Package            Arch                Version                    Repository                    Size
============================================================================================================
Updating:
 vsftpd             i386                2.0.5-24.el5_8.1           updates                       144 k

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================
Install       0 Package(s)
Upgrade       1 Package(s)

Total size: 144 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Updating       : vsftpd                                                                     1/2
  Cleanup        : vsftpd                                                                     2/2

Updated:
  vsftpd.i386 0:2.0.5-24.el5_8.1

Complete!

4.使用YUM列出包
使用list函数搜索具有名称的特定包。例如,要搜索名为openssh的包,请使用该命令。

# yum list openssh
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * epel: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * extras: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * rpmforge: mirror.nl.leaseweb.net
 * updates: mirror.nus.edu.sg
Installed Packages
openssh.i386                                       4.3p2-72.el5_6.3                                                                      installed
Available Packages                                 4.3p2-82.el5        

为了使您的搜索更准确,请使用其版本定义包名称,以防您知道。例如,要搜索包的特定版本openssh-4.3p2,请使用该命令。

# yum list openssh-4.3p2

5.使用YUM搜索包
如果您不记得包的确切名称,请使用搜索功能搜索所有可用包以匹配您指定的包的名称。例如,搜索与该单词匹配的所有包。

# yum search vsftpd
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * epel: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * extras: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * rpmforge: mirror.nl.leaseweb.net
 * updates: ftp.iitm.ac.in
============================== Matched: vsftpd ========================
ccze.i386 : A robust log colorizer
pure-ftpd-selinux.i386 : SELinux support for Pure-FTPD
vsftpd.i386 : vsftpd - Very Secure Ftp Daemon

6.使用YUM获取包的信息
假设您想在安装之前了解包的信息。要获取包的信息,只需发出以下命令。

# yum info firefox
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * epel: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * extras: mirror.neu.edu.cn
 * rpmforge: mirror.nl.leaseweb.net
 * updates: ftp.iitm.ac.in
Available Packages
Name       : firefox
Arch       : i386
Version    : 10.0.6
Release    : 1.el5.centos
Size       : 20 M
Repo       : updates
Summary    : Mozilla Firefox Web browser
URL        : http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firefox/
License    : MPLv1.1 or GPLv2+ or LGPLv2+
Description: Mozilla Firefox is an open-source web browser, designed for standards
           : compliance, performance and portability.

7.使用YUM列出所有可用包
要列出Yum数据库中的所有可用包,请使用以下命令。

# yum list | less

8.使用YUM列出所有已安装的软件包
要列出系统上所有已安装的软件包,只需发出以下命令,它将显示所有已安装的软件包。

# yum list installed | less

9.百胜提供功能
Yum 提供的函数用于查找特定文件所属的包。例如,如果您想知道包含/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf的包的名称。

# yum provides /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
httpd-2.2.3-63.el5.centos.i386 : Apache HTTP Server
Repo        : base
Matched from:
Filename    : /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

httpd-2.2.3-63.el5.centos.1.i386 : Apache HTTP Server
Repo        : updates
Matched from:
Filename    : /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

httpd-2.2.3-65.el5.centos.i386 : Apache HTTP Server
Repo        : updates
Matched from:
Filename    : /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

httpd-2.2.3-53.el5.centos.1.i386 : Apache HTTP Server
Repo        : installed
Matched from:
Other       : Provides-match: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

10.使用Yum检查可用更新
要查找系统上已安装的软件包有多少可用更新,请检查以下命令。

# yum check-update

11.使用Yum更新系统
要使系统与所有安全和二进制包更新保持同步,请运行以下命令。它将为您的系统安装所有最新补丁和安全更新。

# yum update

12.列出所有可用的组包
在Linux中,包的数量捆绑到特定组。您可以安装将安装属于该组的所有相关软件包的特定组,而不是使用yum安装单个软件包。例如,要列出所有可用组,只需发出以下命令。

# yum grouplist
Installed Groups:
   Administration Tools
   DNS Name Server
   Dialup Networking Support
   Editors
   Engineering and Scientific
   FTP Server
   Graphics
   Java Development
   Legacy Network Server
Available Groups:
   Authoring and Publishing
   Base
   Beagle
   Cluster Storage
   Clustering
   Development Libraries
   Development Tools
   Eclipse
   Educational Software
   KDE (K Desktop Environment)
   KDE Software Development

13.安装组包
要安装特定的软件包组,我们使用option作为groupinstall。例如,要安装“ MySQL数据库 ”,只需执行以下命令即可。

# yum groupinstall 'MySQL Database'
Dependencies Resolved

=================================================================================================
Package                             Arch      Version            Repository        Size
=================================================================================================
Updating:
 unixODBC                           i386      2.2.11-10.el5      base              290 k
Installing for dependencies:
 unixODBC-libs                      i386      2.2.11-10.el5      base              551 k

Transaction Summary
=================================================================================================
Install       1 Package(s)
Upgrade       1 Package(s)

Total size: 841 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing     : unixODBC-libs    1/3
  Updating       : unixODBC         2/3
  Cleanup        : unixODBC         3/3

Dependency Installed:
  unixODBC-libs.i386 0:2.2.11-10.el5

Updated:
  unixODBC.i386 0:2.2.11-10.el5

Complete!

14.更新组包
要更新任何现有已安装的组软件包,只需运行以下命令,如下所示。

# yum groupupdate 'DNS Name Server'

Dependencies Resolved
================================================================================================================
 Package            Arch            Version             Repository           Size
================================================================================================================
Updating:
 bind                           i386            30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2          updates              981 k
 bind-chroot                    i386            30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2          updates              47 k
Updating for dependencies:
 bind-libs                      i386            30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2          updates              864 k
 bind-utils                     i386            30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2          updates              174 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================================================================
Install       0 Package(s)
Upgrade       4 Package(s)

Total size: 2.0 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Updating       : bind-libs            1/8
  Updating       : bind                 2/8
  Updating       : bind-chroot          3/8
  Updating       : bind-utils           4/8
  Cleanup        : bind                 5/8
  Cleanup        : bind-chroot          6/8
  Cleanup        : bind-utils           7/8
  Cleanup        : bind-libs            8/8

Updated:
  bind.i386 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2                  bind-chroot.i386 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2

Dependency Updated:
  bind-libs.i386 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2             bind-utils.i386 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2

Complete!

15.删除组包
要从系统中删除或删除任何现有的已安装组,只需使用以下命令。

# yum groupremove 'DNS Name Server'

Dependencies Resolved

===========================================================================================================
 Package                Arch              Version                         Repository          Size
===========================================================================================================
Removing:
 bind                   i386              30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2          installed           2.1 M
 bind-chroot            i386              30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2          installed           0.0

Transaction Summary
===========================================================================================================
Remove        2 Package(s)
Reinstall     0 Package(s)
Downgrade     0 Package(s)

Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Erasing        : bind                                                   1/2
warning: /etc/sysconfig/named saved as /etc/sysconfig/named.rpmsave
  Erasing        : bind-chroot                                            2/2

Removed:
  bind.i386 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2                                        bind-chroot.i386 30:9.3.6-20.P1.el5_8.2

Complete!

16.列出启用的Yum存储库
要列出系统中所有已启用的Yum存储库,请使用以下选项。

# yum repolist

repo id                     repo name                                            status
base                        CentOS-5 - Base                                      enabled:  2,725
epel                        Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - i386         enabled:  5,783
extras                      CentOS-5 - Extras                                    enabled:    282
mod-pagespeed               mod-pagespeed                                        enabled:      1
rpmforge                    RHEL 5 - RPMforge.net - dag                          enabled: 11,290
updates                     CentOS-5 - Updates                                   enabled:    743
repolist: 20,824

17.列出所有已启用和已禁用的Yum存储库
以下命令将显示系统上所有已启用和已禁用的yum存储库。

# yum repolist all

repo id                     repo name                                            status
C5.0-base                   CentOS-5.0 - Base                                    disabled
C5.0-centosplus             CentOS-5.0 - Plus                                    disabled
C5.0-extras                 CentOS-5.0 - Extras                                  disabled
base                        CentOS-5 - Base                                      enabled:  2,725
epel                        Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 5 - i386         enabled:  5,783
extras                      CentOS-5 - Extras                                    enabled:    282
repolist: 20,824

18.从特定存储库安装包
要从特定的已启用或已禁用的存储库安装特定软件包,必须在yum命令中使用-enablerepo选项。例如,要安装PhpMyAdmin 3.5.2软件包,只需执行命令即可。

# yum shell
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Setting up Yum Shell
> update httpd
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.sin3.sg.voxel.net
 * epel: ftp.riken.jp
 * extras: mirrors.sin3.sg.voxel.net
 * updates: mirrors.sin3.sg.voxel.net
Setting up Update Process
>

19.互动YUM Shell
Yum实用程序提供了一个自定义shell,您可以在其中执行多个命令

# yum shell
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Setting up Yum Shell
> update httpd
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.sin3.sg.voxel.net
 * epel: ftp.riken.jp
 * extras: mirrors.sin3.sg.voxel.net
 * updates: mirrors.sin3.sg.voxel.net
Setting up Update Process
>

20.清除YUM缓存
Yum实用程序提供了一个自定义shell,您可以在其中执行多个命令

# yum clean all

21.查看YUM的历史
要查看yum命令的所有过去事务,只需使用以下命令。

# yum history

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
ID     | Login user               | Date and time    | Action(s)      | Altered
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    10 | root               | 2012-08-11 15:19 | Install        |    3
     9 | root               | 2012-08-11 15:11 | Install        |    1
     8 | root               | 2012-08-11 15:10 | Erase          |    1 EE
     7 | root               | 2012-08-10 17:44 | Install        |    1
     6 | root               | 2012-08-10 12:19 | Install        |    2
     5 | root               | 2012-08-10 12:14 | Install        |    3
     4 | root               | 2012-08-10 12:12 | I, U           |   13 E<
     3 | root               | 2012-08-09 13:01 | Install        |    1 >
     2 | root               | 2012-08-08 20:13 | I, U           |  292 EE
     1 | System            | 2012-08-08 17:15 | Install        |  560
history list

我们试图用他们的例子来涵盖所有基本的推进yum命令。如果与yum命令有关的任何内容可能都错过了。请通过我们的评论框更新我们。因此,我们会根据收到的反馈不断更新相同内容。


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